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IV cannulas and Infusion sets

IV Cannulas are one of the most widely medical device, which are usually employed for a wide range of medical procedures, varying from the most straightforward to the most complicated. Injection of drugs and serums can be done by IV Cannulas, which are available in different sizes. IV Cannula is a tool that can be adopted to inject drugs and fluids into the patients’ veins. People should make sure in choosing the brand and also the type of IV Cannula since they can play a significant role in ensuring their health. Stay with us for more information about various types and brands of a IV Cannulas.

Easy to choose the size and the color of the IV Cannulas

Properties and capabilities of IV cannula

IV cannulas have different capabilities, which are employed based on the patients’ conditions and also the place of injection:

IV cannulas have flexible tubes, which are inserted into the patient's vein aims at injection of the medicine in serum, blood, and the blood products.

It should be noted that IV cannulas have different color codes, each of them is employed for a specified purpose.

IV cannulas are available in varied sizes ranging from 14G to 26G. Depending on the patient's condition (age, gender, type of disease, etc.) and also the urgency of the medicine, the selection of each type of IV cannulas determines the size and the color of the IV cannula.

The smaller the gauge size of the IV cannula, the larger the diameter of the IV, and thus the rate of the injection will be higher.

IV cannulas consist of a catheter and a needle. The needle is removed after making an entrance pathway into the vein.

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اجزای تشکیل دهنده آنژیوکت

The parts of IV cannulas

IV are made up of different parts, including:

  • Luer Locking plug
  • Flashback Chamber (which is used to prevent the return of the blood flow)
  • Needle grip
  • Injection port cap
  • Valve
  • wings
  • catheter
  • Needle (Metallic stylet)
  • Needle cap

How to use IV cannula ?

  • The following steps are required for the usage of an IV Cannula:
  • Fixing the part of the vein into which the injection is going to be made.
  • IV should be inserted in a sloping way at an approximate angle of 30 degrees.
  • Blood may be returned in the end of the IV cannula after the vein is punctured.
  • The cannula should be inserted a few millimeters and fixed, then slowly pull the cannula back to the skin.
  • Remove the metallic needle and then exert a little pressure on the catheter tip.

Types of IV cannulas based on color

Based on their color, IV cannulas are divided into several different types. Each color belongs to a specified size and application.

Orange IV cannula

The size or the gauge number of an orange IV is 14. Compared to other types of IV cannulas, the flow rate of orange IV is higher, which is 240 ml per minute. Orange IV have an average length of 45 mm.

One of the most important uses of orange IV is for blood transfusion. (Since the blood is a suspension or some particles and solutes are found in blood, IV with large diameter should be employed for blood transfusion.) Also, orange IV is applicable for major injuries and surgeries. In general, this type of IV cannulas is adopted for emergency situations.

Orange IV cannula

  • Size: 14G
  • Color: Orange
  • Length: 45mm
  • Flow rate: 240ml
  • Fast change of liquids
  • blood injection
  • trauma and major surgery

Grey IV cannula

  • Size: 16G
  • Color: Grey
  • Length: 45mm
  • Flow rate: 180ml
  • Fast change of liquids
  • blood injection
  • trauma and major surgery

Grey IV cannula

As it is mentioned, each IV cannula has specified size. Accordingly, the size of grey IV cannula is 16. This type of IV cannula has an average length of 45 and its flow rate is 180 ml per minute. Grey IV cannulas are advantageous for the fast transfer of liquids, blood transfusion, and major surgical injuries.

White IV cannula

White IV cannula has a size of 17, and its flow rate is 130 ml per minute. Like other types of IV cannulas, the white IV cannula is suitable for the transfer of liquids. The rate of transfer with this medical device is high. White IV cannulas are also beneficial for the transfusion of the blood and its products, injuries and major surgeries.

White IV cannula

  • Size: 17G
  • Color: white
  • Length: 45mm
  • Flow rate: 130ml
  • Fast change of liquids
  • blood injection
  • trauma and major surgery

Green IV cannula

  • Size: 18G
  • Color: green
  • Length: 32mm
  • Flow rate: 90ml
  • change of liquids
  • blood injection
  • trauma and major surgery

Green IV cannula

The size of green IV cannula is 18. Compared to other kinds of a IV cannulas, the green one has lower flow rate, which is 90 ml per minute. This type of IV cannula is used for blood transfusion and surgeries. Moreover, green IV cannula is employed for stem cell harvesting and also when it is need to feed patients through injection.

Pink IV cannula

The gauge number of pink IV cannula is 20. The transfer of liquids with this type of IV cannula is lower and more controlled, which is 60 ml/min. It has a length of 32 mm and is suitable for many intravenous serum and the transfer of medicine. It is also used for injection of many anesthetic drugs.

Pink IV cannula

  • Size: 20G
  • Color: pink
  • Length: 32mm
  • Flow rate: 60ml
  • injection of liquids

Blue IV cannula

  • Size: 22G
  • Color: Blue
  • Length: 25mm
  • Flow rate: 36ml
  • injection of serum into children
  • injection of medicines into cancer patients
  • injection of liquids and drugs into elderly people

Blue IV cannula

Blue IV cannula has a size of 22 and its length is 25 mm. It should be noted that the flow rate of this type of IV cannula is low, which is 36 ml per minute. One of the main and important uses of blue IV cannula is to inject the drug and serum into the children. In addition, they are employed for elderly people and cancer patients.

Yellow IV cannula

Yellow IV cannula has a length of 19 mm. Interestingly, the flow rate of this type of angiocath is equal to 20 ml per minute. One of the most important uses of yellow IV cannula is for infants and children.

Yellow IV cannula

  • Size: 20G
  • Color: Yellow
  • Length: 19mm
  • Flow rate: 20ml
  • suitable for newborn children and also children

Three Way Stopcock

The recent progress in medical science has induced scientists to focus more on production of medical device, which will result in introducing newer medical device into the market by using advanced technologies. This, in turn, will have a significant impact on the therapy process and also its time. One of the most widely used medical device is the three-way Stopcock, which acts as a valve and is employed to control the flow of a liquid or medicine.

This device provides three different ways for flow (from inside to outside, inside to side port and side port to outside), which is conducted by using a handle on the top of the device. The three-way Stopcock are composed of three ports (two female Luer Lock Ports and one Male Luer Lock Port) and three caps for each of them. Also, a valve that is located on top of the device, which can rotate 360 degrees. The body of the device is transparent and made of polycarbonate.

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Types of three way stopcocks based on color

The valve on the top of the device has three different colors, including red, blue, and white, which indeed is a coding. The blue one is suitable for intravenous injections and the red one is appropriate for the arterial flows. The three-way stopcock with white valve is rarely used and is usually employed for the patients who require large amounts of intravenous fluids.Also, white one is used for cases which are not emergency but should be done as soon as possible, such as blood transfusions.

Three way stopcocks properties

This medical device possesses some attributes, including:

  • Disposable, sterile, single use.
  • Its body is insulated against leakage and withstand pressure up to more than 10 bar under normal conditions
  • Arrow marks on top to show the flow direction
  • The possibility of 360 degrees of rotation for the valve without any restrictions
  • The possibility of injection of several different liquids into a person at the same time
  • Can be used for children and adults
  • It can be changed every 72 hours
  • Disposable, sterile, single use.
سه راهی آنژیوکت آبی و قرمز

Difference between a 3 way and 4 way stopcock

تفاوت سه راهی و چهارراهی آنژیوکت

A 4 way stopcock allows for 360 degrees of rotation and has the states (shown below) for each of the four available positions. A 3 way stopcock has only three positions and has the first three states shown below.

  • In the first state, liquid flows between points A and B.
  • In the second, it flows between points A and C.
  • In the third, it flows between points B and C.
  • In the fourth state (4-way only), it flows between all three points.

How to use a 3 way stopcock ?

Following steps should be done for using a 3-way stopcock:

  1. Check the package for any damage and also check the expiration date. Then, open the package. It is necessary to use stopcock immediately after opening.
  2. Remove the caps from the ends of the ports.
  3. Based on your need, connect one of the ports to the extension tube or any other type of device.
  4. Remove any air from the stopcock or attached tubes.
  5. Clean the connector and connect it to the patient.

Necessary precautions during using a 3 way stopcock

  • Use only once.
  • Do not use if contaminated, dirty, or damaged.
  • Use more than once for other patients may cause infection.
  • When using it, make sure the port is connected. Check regularly that there is no leakage at the connection place.

Advantages of using a 3 way stopcock

  • There is no need to exert pressure on patient’s vein, so the 3-way stopcock damaged late.
  • The possibility of contamination during connection/disconnection of the burette set is low.
  • No contamination of the serum set due to no need to move
  • The possibility of contamination and destruction of veins in children is low.
  • The risk of embolism is low.

Disadvantages of using a 3 way stopcock

Due to design of the 3-way stopcock, there is a “dead space” at the connection of the 3-way stopcock with other devices. Despite washing, this space cannot be completely cleared from the remaining fluids, which leads to the accumulation of pollutants in this area. When the catheter is permanently in the vein, the accumulation of the contaminants gives rise to the accumulation of bacteria. Moreover, the successive usage of the 3-way stopcock can cause an increase in contamination and subsequently hospital infections.

References::

 https://www.ivcannula.com/three-way-stop-cock.html

 https://www.gpcmedical.com/1278/DIS122/3-way-stop-cock.html

 https://www.infusesafety.com/next-generation-stopcocks–reducing-infections-in-the-icu

 https://www.wpiinc.com/blog/post/what-s-the-difference-between-a-3-way-and-4-way-stopcock

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